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Basic Dictionary

This lesson provides a categorized list of all the letters and essential grammar words in Primal.  This includes all pronouns, prepositions, affixes, and numbers.  In all, there are exactly 48 letters and 148 essential words.

Additionally, the generic verb ,ly (lee, "do") is sometimes considered an essential word.

Letters Of The Alphabet


,a ,e ,i ,o ,u ,c ,w ,r ,y ,g ,b ,B ,C ,P ,F ,V ,Z ,S ,A ,E ,I ,O ,U ,G
a eh ih o uh uo ooh ur ee ohw oar oi auw air ay eer ii ar al el il all ul ohl
,W ,R ,Y ,p ,f ,v ,T ,D ,q ,Q ,x ,X ,j ,J ,s ,z ,k ,H ,h ,m ,n ,N L ,.
w r y p f v ts dz th dth sh zh ch j s z k khh h m n ng l .

Noun Affixes

Noun Prefix Pronounced Meaning   Noun Suffix Pronounced Meaning
nu (nuh) indefinite   ny (nee) naturally
Qu (dthuh) a   jy (chee) however
vu (vuh) plural   Tu (tsuh) also
ju (chuh) each-of   py (pee) only
Ju (juh) all-of   mU (mul) other
,lu (luh) none-of   sr (sur) operator
QU (dthul) some-of   zy (zee) resulting
Ru (ruh) this    
Ry (ree) these  
ku (kuh) proper  


Specific Pronouns

Personal Pronoun Pronounced Meaning   Syntactic Pronoun Pronounced Meaning
Wy (wee) me   Yy (yee) that
Yw (yooh) you   kr (kur) what
Ww (wooh) it   zu (zuh) imperative
Wyx (weesh) self    

User-Defined Pronouns

Pronoun Pronounced   Pronoun Pronounced   Pronoun Pronounced
Wwp (woohp)   WwQ (woohdth)   Wwz (woohz)
Wwf (woohf)   Wwx (woohsh)   Wwk (woohk)
Wwv (woohv)   WwX (woohzh)   WwH (woohkhh)
YwT (woohts)   Wwj (woohch)   Wwm (woohm)
WwD (woohdz)   WwJ (woohj)   Wwn (woohn)
Wwq (woohth)   Wws (woohs)   WwN (woohng)

Unary Suffixes

Unary Suffix Pronounced Meaning   Unary Suffix Pronounced Meaning
kE (kel) beyond   sy (see) slight
Jy (jee) maximal   Xr (zhur) lacking
Xy (zhee) extreme   Hr (khhur) not
Ty (tsee) great   WU (wul) sort-of
ma (ma) moderate   Jw (jooh) anti
Hy (khhee) poor   ky (kee) cute

Verb Affixes

Verb Prefixes

Verb Prefix Pronounced Meaning   Verb Prefix Pronounced Meaning
qu (thuh) present   pux (puhsh) past-continuous.
quN (thuhng) present-again   puz (puhz) past-beginning
quT (thuhts) present-repeatedly   puk (puhk) past-ceasing
qux (thuhsh) present-continuous.   fu (fuh) future
quz (thuhz) present-beginning   fuN (fuhng) future-again
quk (thuhk) present-ceasing   fuT (fuhts) future-repeatedly
pu (puh) past   fux (fuhsh) future-continuous.
puN (puhng) past-again   fuz (fuhz) future-beginning
puT (puhts) past-repeatedly   fuk (fuhk) future-ceasing
Verb Suffixes
Verb Suffix Pronounced Meaning   Verb Suffix Pronounced Meaning
xc (shuo) should   DU (dzul) needing
nr (nur) might   ,lU (lul) allowed
my (mee) able   RC (rauw) prepared
Dy (dzee) desiring   RU (rul) attempting


The yellow shaded prepositions are reflexive.  The blue are contractions; see (advanced) Prepositions II.

  Preposition Pronounced Meaning   Preposition Pronounced Meaning
xy (shee) above   xyj (sheech) below
Jr (jur) in-front   Jrj (jurch) in-back
Wu (wuh) left   Wuj (wuhch) right
hr (hur) before   hrj (hurch) after
hy (hee) overlapping   hyj (heech) separate
,lw (looh) within   ,lwj (loohch) surrounding
Ri (rih) near-to   Rij (rihch) far-apart
Yi (yih) around   Yij (yihch) by-way-of
pw (pooh) to-target   pwj (poohch) from-source
CAUSAL jw (chooh) to-help-with   jwj (choohch) to-be-against
fw (fooh) therefore   fwj (foohch) because-of
nw (nooh) controlling   nwj (noohch) controlled-by
mw (mooh) owning   mwj (moohch) owned-by
su (suh) containing   suj (suhch) member-of
xuj (shuhch) phrase+
  Xuj (zhuhch) both+
Qw (dthooh) more-than   Qwj (dthoohch) less-than
QC (dthauw) similar-to   QCj (dthauwch) different-than
mu (muh) and   muj (muhch) neither-nor
hw (hooh) if-only   hwj (hoohch) exclusive-or
Dw (dzooh) whether   Dwj (dzoohch) whether-then
fi (fih) if   fij (fihch) if-then
Yu (yuh) and-or   Yuj (yuhch) not-both
SPECIAL Wi (wih) verb-with    

Preposition Prefixes

The added parenthetic meaning is for the implied form of the prefix; see (advanced) Prepositions II.

Preposition Prefix Pronounced Meaning   Preposition Prefix Pronounced Meaning
xu (shuh) phrase (+containing)   Xu (zhuh) both (+containing)


Number Pronounced Meaning   Number Pronounced Meaning
kU (kul) zero   xZ (shii) eleven
Rw (rooh) one   qbk (thoark) twelve
kw (kooh) two   kF (kay) thirteen
qy (thee) three   puX (puhzh) fourteen
kwx (koohsh) four   qg (thohw) fifteen
Yg (yohw) five    
qwx (thoohsh) six   hu (huh) separator
pU (pul) seven   Yr (yur) radix-point
kwT (koohts) eight   Qy (dthee) radix
qyx (theesh) nine   Qr (dthur) radix-exponent
fU (ful) ten   JU (jul) negative

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