This lesson discusses several advanced topics in phrase and sentence structure, including compound sentences, conjunction linking, quotations, user-defined pronouns, and selective phrase targeting.
Compound sentences are a collection of two or more sentences connected by the pronoun Yy (yee, "that"). This pronoun literally stands for "the next sentence".
The pronoun Yy (yee, "that") is used to allow an object to be an entire sentence, complete with predicates. This is frequently done with the direct object of thought and speech verbs, like "think" and "say", so that a speaker can discuss entire sentences:
The pronoun Yy (yee, "that") is primarily useful because it allows a phrase to contain predicates indirectly. This pronoun may also be used to simplify overly-large sentences by breaking them up into smaller sentences, or to make quotations as described in the Quotations section of this lesson.
When the word Yy (yee, "that") appears, it is usually the last word in a sentence, but this is not always the case. Sometimes it is helpful to split the subject of a sentence into a separate sentence of its own:
In the above example, the second sentence (in its entirety) is the subject of the first sentence.
Sometimes you'll need to modify something with a group of sentences, rather than with a single sentence. When a group of sentences becomes a modifier, it is called a composite sentence. A composite sentence is always a part of a larger compound sentence.
To form a composite sentence, simply insert the single-word sentence Yy. (yee, "that.") after any sentence that modifies another sentence. Any sentence that follows the single-word sentence Yy. (yee, "that.") continues to modify whatever the previous sentence modified:
Here, the first Yy (yee, "that") tells the listener that the following sentence will describe what is "needed". The second, single-word sentence Yy. (yee, "that.") tells the listener that the description for what is "needed" is ongoing, and will continue with the following sentence.
A composite sentence may consist of many sentences chained together. The single-word sentence Yy. (yee, "that.") must appear between each other sentence.
Beware! This is a rarely used and confusing subject, even for advanced speakers. It is included here only for completeness.
It is possible to use more than one Yy (yee, "that") in the same sentence, although this is very uncommon. If Yy (yee, "that") appears twice, it normally refers to the same sentence:
It is also possible to refer to more than one sentence in the same sentence. This is done by enumerating Yy (yee, "that"). The pronoun Yy (yee, "that") has a special meaning when enumerated:
A chain of sentences is a subset of a compound sentence. One chain is all of the sentences connected through a single Yy (yee, "that"). Here is a vacuous example to demonstrate how the order "unrolls":
Each Yy (yee, "that") has a superscript, and each corresponding sentence is prefaced with a label. Notice that [B1] and [B2] are unrolled before [A1] and [A2]. Since [A0] is unrolled first, everything in its chain gets unrolled before the other two Yy (yee, "that") that appear in the same sentence.
Conjunctions follow several special rules, in addition to those named in the (basic) Verb Phrases lesson:
Conjunctions that modify objects no longer add another subject to the sentence. Rather, they imply that the subject performs the verb on more than one object. This is useful because of the conditional nature of conjunctions. Here are some examples:
Conjunctions require a verb for grammatical correctness, which is why the generic verb ,ly (lee, "do") appears in the first two examples above.
The meaning of a conjunction also changes when its object is Yy (yee, "that"). Instead of introducing a second subject, the conjunction links two sentences (in their entirety) by the condition. As always, only the verb targeted by a conjunction is part of the conditional statement:
If a conjunction both takes a preposition prefix (it modifies an object) and Yy (yee, "that") is its object, only the special effect of the "conjunction with preposition prefix" applies. In other words, the following sentence becomes an additional object of the verb linked to its target by the conditional nature of the conjunction.
A quotation is a verbatim (exact, word for word) copy of a sound, sentence fragment, or set of sentences. Quotations are formed similarly to compound sentences, except that Yy (yee, "that") takes the unary suffix Jy (jee, "maximal"). This gives it the meaning of "exactly the next sentence". Some examples:
Notice that the second example, above, requires Yy (yee, "that") only for the purpose of creating a verbatim quote.
In order to form a quotation consisting of multiple sentences, a composite sentence must be used, as described previously in the Composite Sentences section of this lesson. For example:
There is a rare point here, for advanced speakers. When quoting multiple sentences, the single-word sentence Yy. (yee, "that.") is not considered part of the quotation. This is not usually a problem, because the inclusion of this word is usually contextually obvious, and speakers rarely wish to speak one literal quotation within another literal quotation. In the rare case where it is essential to quote the single-word sentence Yy. (yee, "that."), adding Jy (jee, "maximal") will cause Yy. (yee, "that.") to become part of the quote itself. It retains its outside grammatical meaning as well (it still joins the composite sentence).
Primal has a unique method for "defining" a set of pronouns. This process combines complex concepts into a single word. There are 18 user-defined pronouns, one for each consonant that can end a syllable. They are listed individually in the User-Defined Pronouns section of the (basic) Pronouns lesson.
To define a user-defined pronoun, the pronoun must appear in a QCkE (dthaw-kel, "similar-to beyond") phrase. Everything in the current sentence that precedes this phrase becomes the concept that the pronoun refers to. For example:
This defines the pronoun Wwk (woohk, "it-k") to mean "the white ball". If the current sentence is part of a compound sentence, all previous sentences in the compound sentence are also included in the definition.
The QCkE (dthaw-kel, "similar-to beyond") preposition should never take a preposition prefix.
A definition lasts until it is redefined, or goes unused for too long to be remembered. A speaker may occasionally "refresh" an old user-defined pronoun by redefining it to its original meaning.
Selective Phrase Targeting
Preposition prefixes may be modified with a number in order to allow an object to be targeted by more than one phrase. This process is called selective phrase targeting.
Selective phrase targeting is performed by sandwiching a basic number, nearly always Rw (rooh, "one") or kw (kooh, "two"), between the preposition prefix and the preposition. Unlike the enumeration of nouns and verbs, this number actually becomes a part of the compound preposition. The number stands for a particular phrase level, which is the degree of separation between its phrase object and the nearest subject or verb. A subject or verb is phrase level zero; a phrase that modifies the subject or a verb is phrase level one; a phrase that modifies a level one phrase is phrase level two; and so on.
When used with the preposition prefix xu (shuh, "phrase"), the number points the phrase to the most recent phrase of its number's level. This allows an object to be modified more than once:
Notice that both "indefinite+reflect" and "roughness lacking" modify "scales". This is only possible because the phrase target for the "roughness lacking" object was selected by the number. Without selective phrase targeting, objects can only be modified in an individual manner once: by the following phrase.
Notice we used two implied words in this example. Implied words are discussed in the Prepositions II lesson. The first implied word was xusu (sh'suh, "phrase containing") from xu (shuh "phrase"). The second was nuHSs (n'khhars, "indefinite reflect") from HSs (khhars, "reflect").
However, there is no shorter form for xuRwsu (sh'rooh-suh, "phrase one containing"). Selective phrase targeting is not allowed with implied prepositions and contractions. Selective phrase targeting requires that a number appears between a separate preposition prefix and preposition, so the long format is always required.
When used with the preposition prefix Xu (zhuh, "both"), selective phrase targeting changes the target from "the default target plus everything in between", to "all previous phrases of the number's level". For example, the preposition XuRwWu (zh'rooh-wuh, "both one left") means "all previous level one phrase objects are to the left of this object".
Differentiating Numbers Around Prepositions
It's important to be able to differentiate between simple preposition enumeration and selective phrase targeting. In selective phrase targeting, the preposition cannot be an implied word or a contraction, as discussed in the (advanced) Prepositions II lesson. Because of this, selective phrase targeting always places a basic number between a preposition prefix and a preposition:
In contrast, enumerated prepositions can occur adjacent to implied words. Because of this, enumerated prepositions can be encountered in many forms:
The following heuristic can be used to tell the difference: